Integrated fruit production systems rely on pest, disease and weed control with specific pesticides, which spare beneficial organisms. This leads to crop protection strategies with a larger number of different pesticides. However, consumers demand a reduction of pesticide use in agriculture and ideally an elimination of pesticide residues in order to minimize the impact on the environment and on risk for human health. Wholesalers introduced quality management systems in order to reduce residues and the used plant protection products. Agroscope tested during several years from a technical and economic point of view a low residue strategy. The production of residue-free apples is possible under Swiss conditions if the crop protection strategy against fungal diseases is adapted and alternative measures such as insect exclusion netting, mating disruption against codling moth (Cydia pomonella), mulching with leaves to reduce scab (Venturia inaequalis) inoculum, and modern storage techniques are applied. The production of low-residue apples meets consumer demand, but the economic calculation showed that the low-residue strategy is not profitable without a price premium compared to integrated production. Research, advisory services and production are challenged to develop profitable eco- and consumer-friendly production systems for high quality fruits.